Practical problems faced by wood packaging of the

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Practical problems faced by wood packaging for export commodities and Countermeasures

from the perspective of long-term development, the restrictions of the governments of the United States, Canada and other countries are not only a challenge, but also an opportunity for us. We should take this opportunity to actively carry out packaging improvement, explore new packaging materials to replace wood materials for processing export packaging, study and use new pest treatment methods, improve the effect of quarantine treatment, and avoid environmental pollution, so as to protect our forest resources and the ecological environment we rely on, which is of great significance to achieve the sustainable growth of China's foreign trade exports

wood packaging has been the most widely used in the world because of its simple processing technology and strong applicability. In recent decades, with the continuous reduction of wood resources, the emergence of new packaging materials and the development of modern transportation, its utilization rate has decreased year by year. However, because wood packaging has incomparable advantages in strength, price, recyclability and other aspects, it is still widely used when shipping heavy or large goods for export. At present, the wooden packaging of export commodities is facing problems from home and abroad, which urgently needs us to seriously study and properly solve in order to avoid a negative impact on China's foreign trade exports

I. relevant information of wood packaging for export commodities. Wood packaging for export commodities refers to wooden containers such as wooden boxes and barrels, as well as wooden pallets, wooden matting and fixing materials. It is understood that at this stage, more than 1/3 of the goods in China have been packed with wood in October 2017. These commodities include hardware products, mechanical and electrical products, chemical and mineral products and some agricultural and sideline products, which are mainly exported to the United States, the European Union, Germany, Canada, Australia, Southeast Asia and other countries. It involves a wide range of commodities and many exporting countries, which has a significant impact on China's foreign trade exports. At present, China's export commodity wood packaging mainly uses natural wood, and the utilization rate of artificial wood is far lower than that of foreign developed countries

according to the provisions of the commodity inspection law, the commodity inspection authorities have implemented the export packaging quality license management on the wood packaging of export commodities listed in the category list since 1991. The relevant wood packaging processing enterprises have begun to establish a quality assurance system, and according to the characteristics of wood packaging, they have focused on strengthening the control of raw material selection, structural design and finished product assembly in their processing process, basically achieving excellent material selection, reasonable structure Firmly assembled. In addition, the commodity inspection authorities have also strengthened the inspection and management of the use of wood packaging for export commodities, ensuring the correct and reasonable use of wood packaging with good quality

II. Practical problems faced

1. The contradiction between domestic wood supply and demand is prominent

China is a Shaolin country, with a national forest coverage rate of only 12%, ranking 120 in more than 160 countries and regions in the world. According to the results of the National Forest Resources Survey in the early 1990s, the national timber recoverable resources are only 1.4 billion to 1.5 billion cubic meters, and can only be harvested for 7 to 8 years at most. However, due to China's traditional habit of using wood and people's weak awareness of environmental protection, forest resources have been overloaded in recent years, resulting in soil erosion, climate imbalance, destruction of ecological balance, and increasing natural disasters. The catastrophic floods in the Yangtze River Basin, Nenjiang River and Songhua river basins this summer are the most powerful proof. At present, the Chinese government has ordered to stop massive deforestation and change deforestation to afforestation. With the development of national economy, the national demand for wood is also growing; Among export commodities, as the proportion of mechanical and electrical products has increased year by year, and the wood packaging required has also increased year by year, the contradiction between the wood production cycle and the national economic development and the growth of foreign trade exports has become increasingly prominent. At present, the consumption of wood packaging materials in China accounts for about 9% of the total consumption of packaging materials, which is much higher than the level of 2% in the United States and Germany, and also higher than the level of 5% in Japan. Therefore, with the increasing shortage of wood resources, the prospect of using wood as packaging materials is dim. It is imperative to save wood and develop wood substitute materials

2. foreign environmental protection and quarantine requirements are becoming increasingly stringent

with the continuous development of international trade towards liberalization, tariff barriers have gradually weakened or disappeared. In order to seek trade protection, some developed countries often adopt "green barriers" based on the protection of human health and ecological environment to restrict foreign goods from entering the domestic market, and the packaging of goods is an important part of its obstacles. The Secretary of agriculture of the current U.S. government signed a new decree on September 11, 1998, requiring all wooden packages from China to undergo disinfestation treatment before entering the United States, which must be certified by China's entry-exit inspection and quarantine authority. This law has been implemented since December 17, 1998. The illegal goods will be banned from entering the country or the wooden packages will be removed and destroyed under the conditions approved by the United States. Its purpose is to prevent Anoplophora glabripennis from being introduced into the United States. The Canadian government food inspection agency announced on November 4, 1998 that Canada would ban the import of wood packaging with beetles from China from January 4, 1999, and suggested that China should use drying and chemical preservatives to eliminate beetles hidden in wood. In addition, Australia, New Zealand and other countries previously had similar regulations, requiring all goods packed in wooden cases (including wooden pallets) to provide fumigation certificates when entering the country. Although the implementation of the new quarantine regulations by the governments of the United States, Canada and other countries is discriminatory and unreasonable, as the United States, Canada and other countries are the main trading partners of China's FL lower limit frequency (Hz), if we do not respond quickly, it is bound to cause significant losses to China's export enterprises. Moreover, it is difficult to predict whether other countries will make such regulations in the future, which is indeed a great challenge to the wooden packaging of export commodities

3. process design and pest control technology need to be further improved

at present, although the wood packaging of export commodities can meet the requirements of safe transportation in terms of strength, with the emergence of new loading and unloading tools and the improvement of transportation conditions, the safety factor required for packaging is greatly reduced, and the phenomenon of excess packaging exists in a large number. The design of wood packaging structure of some export commodities is poor, and the strength matching of main stress components such as box sleepers and columns with other non key parts is unreasonable, which is not conducive to the exertion of wood strength. The above phenomena have caused waste in the use of wood, increased packaging costs, and are not conducive to the reduction of export foreign exchange earning costs. At present, most of the disinfestation treatment is carried out after the wood packaging is used, which wastes a lot of manpower and material resources and increases the economic burden of export enterprises. In addition, the chemical agents such as methyl bromide used in the fumigation method are toxic and harmful substances, which have great limitations on some commodities with special requirements and will also cause serious harm to the surrounding environment. From the perspective of development prospects, this is not desirable, We must explore and use new methods of pest control

4. Comprehensive management needs to be strengthened urgently

at present, except for the wood packaging of export commodities listed in the category list, which is subject to the management of export packaging quality license, and is processed by licensed enterprises at designated points, most of the wood packaging of other export commodities are processed dispersedly, and the processing enterprises are mixed. Some small enterprises know little about the commodity inspection law and the animal and plant quarantine law, and are even stranger to the regulations of foreign governments on packaging quality quarantine. Therefore, in the processing of export wood packaging, there is a lack of targeted control over packaging quality and pest treatment. In order to reduce export costs, some export units do not make strict requirements on the quality of wood packaging, and some units even evade quarantine and quarantine treatment. As the quarantine requirements of the relevant countries for export wood packaging were put forward late, the entry-exit quarantine organ has not yet formed a comprehensive and effective supervision system, which also creates an opportunity for individual export wood packaging processing and export units, thus bringing difficulties to the normal quarantine and quarantine treatment work

III. countermeasures to be taken by relevant parties

1. Use new packaging materials to replace wood packaging materials

with the progress of science and technology, some new packaging materials with excellent functions, relatively low cost, less occupied space and good recyclability continue to appear. According to the characteristics of export commodities, we can use them alone, in combination or in combination, so as to replace wood packaging, so as to avoid high consumption of wood resources. For example, heavy corrugated cardboard boxes, honeycomb cardboard boxes, calcium plastic corrugated boxes instead of wooden boxes, containing hardware, small Electromechanical, etc., which has a wide range of promotion value in small and medium-sized packaging; Replace wooden barrels with plastic barrels and cardboard barrels to contain chemical and mineral products and agricultural and sideline products; Honeycomb sandwich board is used to replace wood production pallet or as bedding material; For heavy large packages, such as hydropower equipment, boiler pavers, etc., which often weigh dozens or even hundreds of tons, steel supports or chassis can be used to replace wood. In addition, for some commodity packages with special requirements, several materials can be used for composite or combined use. For example, in the export of flat glass, it is traditionally packed in checkered wooden boxes. Now it has been successfully studied to use corrugated cardboard to cover the four sides of 12 large glasses, with honeycomb cardboard liner under it, which is vertically fixed on the steel frame, and can be loaded and unloaded by crane or forklift

2. Improve the structural design of wood packaging and reduce the consumption of natural wood

because wood packaging has good load-bearing, compressive strength, bending strength and impact strength, it is also widely used in some large and medium-sized packaging, especially in some precision electromechanical product packaging. Nevertheless, the processing and using units of wood packaging should pay attention to the reasonable design of the packaging according to the characteristics of export commodities, such as compression resistance, shock resistance, load distribution and other characteristics, as well as the different loading, unloading and transportation conditions, so as to ensure that the strength of materials in all parts of the wood packaging is brought into full play, avoid excessive packaging, and achieve the effect of saving wood. In addition, artificial wood can be used to replace natural wood. Plywood, fiberboard and other artificial wood can be processed into different layers and thicknesses according to different strength requirements in the production process, and there are no major diseases and pests after hot pressing at more than 120 ℃. Using it to replace natural wood can improve the appearance quality of wood packaging, be convenient to use, and greatly reduce the difficulty of pest control

3. strengthen the supervision of export commodity wood packaging with quarantine requirements

because most of the export commodity wood packaging outside the category table is processed dispersedly, the pest control treatment is usually carried out dispersedly after the packaging is used, which brings great inconvenience to the normal quarantine treatment work. In the long run, in order to implement the quarantine work of wood packaging for export commodities, it is necessary to implement the quality license management for the production of wood packaging with quarantine requirements, just as the commodity inspection implements the quality license management for the wood packaging of legal inspection commodities. This product is widely used in the wood deep processing industry, wood-based panel production enterprises, processing enterprises are registered or recognized in the enterprises that have obtained the quality license of export packaging, fixed-point processing and centralized pest control. First, the processing enterprises shall strictly select materials and carry out pest control treatment on the wood with diseases and pests before packaging and processing. At the same time, attention should be paid to improving the quality awareness and technical level of the units and personnel responsible for pest control and treatment to ensure the work effect of pest control and treatment

4. study and use new pest control methods

at present, the pest control treatment generally adopts heat treatment, fumigation treatment or preservative treatment, which have disadvantages. Heat treatment is carried out by drying method, and it is dried at 100 ℃

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