Basic requirements for safety of the hottest food

2022-08-12
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Basic requirements for the safety of food packaging materials

the safety of packaged food is a worldwide problem. The safety standard of packaged food in China is QS (quality safety), which is the abbreviation of quality safety. In July, 2002, China first implemented safety certification for five types of packaged food: rice, flour, oil, vinegar and sauce (oil). In September, 2003, the meat products 10 categories of packaged food such as dairy products are subject to QS certification. This year, 13 categories of packaged food such as beer, candy and tea are included in the scope of food safety market access, namely QS certification.

three years ago, China joined the world trade organization. The WTO food trade rules "agreement on health and epidemic prevention" It stipulates that Member States have the right to take safety and health measures to protect the safety of their consumers, and have the right to participate in international organizations and adopt international standards. Codex Alimentarius Commission CAC is the highest authority of international food safety. Its responsibilities include formulating standards, coordinating national food/safety standard legislation and guiding the establishment of food safety system. It has more than 160 member countries, covering 98% of the global population; More than 80000 standards have been adopted by Member States, including food safety and packaging materials. The situation of food quality and safety in China is good. According to the General Administration of quality supervision, inspection and Quarantine of the people's Republic of China, the average passing rate of the inspection results of the "old five categories" of food (rice, noodles, oil, vinegar, soy sauce) in 2001 was less than 60%, and the latest generation was 31%. Today, 22000 Food Enterprises in the old five categories have passed the safety certification, and the market closed at 888.5, up 3.31% and accounting for 95%

in April 2004, eight ministries and commissions including the State Food Administration, the Ministry of public security and the Ministry of Health jointly held the "National Conference on the construction of food safety system"; In September, the State Council issued the notice of the decision of the State Council on further strengthening food safety

on September 18, 2004, the "China food security annual conference" jointly supported by the Ministry of agriculture, the Ministry of Commerce, the Ministry of health, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce and other seven ministries and commissions was held in the Great Hall of the people in Beijing. At the opening ceremony, representatives of 200 enterprises, including Yili in Inner Mongolia and Yanjing in Beijing, solemnly vowed to "dedicate safe food and build a great wall of safety" in order to tighten quality management, strengthen food hygiene and safety, crack down on fake and shoddy products, purify the consumer market, strengthen brand awareness and improve international competitiveness. According to authoritative sources, "China International Food Safety Conference" will be held soon

food quality and safety involves many aspects, such as food production raw materials, manufacturing technology and food packaging materials. This paper will discuss the relationship between food safety and packaging materials

basic requirements for the safety of food packaging materials

the dissolution of packaging materials is the key to food safety and hygiene. As early as 1980, Conor reliy, a world-famous food packaging expert, discussed it in the book "metal concentration of food", and it has also been stipulated in the HACCP safety system in recent years

paper packaging. Paper is the oldest and most traditional packaging material, but its unsafe hidden dangers can not be ignored. The main reason is that chemicals such as impervious agent/sizing agent, filler (to make the paper opaque), bleach, dye, etc. need to be added to the pulp in the manufacturing process. The anti-seepage agent mainly uses rosin soap; The filler adopts kaolin, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, zinc sulfide, barium sulfate and magnesium silicate; Bleaching agents include calcium hypochlorite, liquid chlorine, hypochlorous acid, sodium peroxide and hydrogen peroxide; Water soluble dyes and pigments are used as colorants. The former includes acid dyes, alkaline dyes and direct dyes, while the latter includes inorganic and organic pigments

most of the dissolved substances of paper come from chemical substances such as pulp additives. Bleach disappears safely when washing pulp; If there is no color dissolution of the dye, it can be used regardless of the color. However, if there is color dissolution, only food additive dyes can be used. In addition, various metals are used in inorganic pigments, such as cadmium metals in red and lead metals in yellow. These metals can dissolve out and cause disease even below the ppm level. The food safety and health law stipulates that fluorescent dyes are prohibited from being used in food packaging materials. In addition, the paper products can also dissolve the mold inhibitor or formaldehyde used in resin processing

the dissolved matter of cellophane is basically the same as that of paper, except that glycerol softeners are used in cellophane. Moisture proof cellophane needs resin processing, and most of them use nitrocellulose, vinyl chloride resin, polyvinylidene chloride resin, etc

plastic packaging. Plastic is the most widely used food packaging material. Plastics can generally be divided into heat hardenability and heat plasticity. The former includes urea resin UF, phenolic resin PF and trichlorocyanamide Resin MF; The latter includes vinyl chloride resin PVC, polyvinylidene chloride resin PVDC, polyethylene PE, polypropylene PP, polystyrene PS, nylon NY, styrene resin as, styrene resin ABS, polyester resins, such as pet, pen, etc. Different additives are used according to different resins and adhesives used in making composites, such as TDI, TDA, etc

for food packaging, the unsafe hidden danger lies in the formaldehyde of UF, PF, MF, PVC in vinyl chloride monomer, PS in toluene, ethylbenzene, cumene and other compounds. In addition, it is also related to plastic additives, such as stabilizers (antioxidants, stabilizers for vinyl chloride resins and UV absorbers), lubricants, colorants, antistatic agents, plasticizers, etc. Generally, safe stabilizers should be used, and heavy metal stabilizers should be used with caution. Lead, cadmium chloride, dibutyltin compounds and other stabilizers are generally prohibited for food packaging materials. The addition amount of plasticizer should be controlled within 5-40%, and the addition amount of other additives should be less than 3%

metal packaging. It is generally divided into foil and can material. The former uses aluminum foil or iron foil (a small amount of tin foil in the past); The latter is mostly used for tinning cans. When using aluminum foil, the purity of the material is very high, which must reach 99 The requirements for the experimental machine are also different. There are almost no impurities. However, aluminum foil is rarely used alone because of small pores, and is mostly used together with plastic film. The surface of metal cans is mostly coated with plastic

generally speaking, the tin dissolved from tin plating cans used in the past will form organic acid salts, which are highly toxic. There are many cases of such poisoning. For example, in the poisoning of fruit juice cans in Japan in 1960, the amount of tin dissolved in each 250ml can was as high as 1000 ~ 1500mg. The substance that causes foodborne diseases is the tin salt of citric acid or malic acid. According to the food hygiene law, the tin dissolution limit of tinned fruit juice cans in Japan is less than 150ppm and that in the UK is less than 200ppm. In addition, soldering tin can also cause lead poisoning, but now most of the inner walls of cans are coated, so there is almost no poisoning caused by tin plating

wooden containers, ceramic and enamel food containers. Although the texture of wooden food packaging containers is different from that of ceramic enamel food containers, their surfaces must be treated, or coated or glazed. Coatings and glazes are all chemicals (glazes contain sodium silicate and metal salts, with more lead). In addition, coloring pigments also contain metal salts, so there will also be unsafe risks. In particular, the current popular density fiberboard moon cakes and tea packaging boxes are disturbing because they contain a large amount of free formaldehyde and other harmful volatile substances

the research shows that the glaze is coated on the surface of ceramic or enamel blank and fired at 800 ~ 1000 ℃. If the firing temperature is low, insoluble silicate cannot be formed, and the dissolution of metal can be seen in the 40% acetic acid dissolution test. According to research reports, glazed packaging containers, such as the use of bright red or yellow painted patterns, will appear the dissolution of lead or cadmium

glass containers. Glass is also a melt of inorganic substances. Its main component is sio2-na2o, in which anhydrous silicic acid accounts for 65 ~ 72%, and the firing temperature is 1000 ~ 1500 degrees. Therefore, most of them form insoluble salts. However, due to the different types of glass, there are still dissolved substances from raw materials, so the dissolution of alkali, lead (lead crystalline glass) and arsenic (defoamer) should be tested during safety testing

the coloring of glass requires metal salts. For example, blue requires oxidation, which is roughly the same as that of deformation measurement. Cobalt requires graphite, bamboo green, light white and dark green, copper oxide and potassium dichromate, and alkali is required for colorlessness. The safety and health law stipulates that the lead dissolution of lead crystalline glass should be limited to 1 ~ 2ppm

rubber. Rubber is seldom used as food packaging material alone, and is generally used as gasket or sealing material. It has two major categories: natural rubber and synthetic rubber, and the latter can also be subdivided. The additives of rubber include cross-linking agent, anti-aging agent, sulfur additive, vulcanization leap forward agent and filler, etc. The dissolution of natural rubber is greatly affected by the natural substances (protein, water containing carbon) in raw materials, and its value increases due to the dissolution of vulcanization accelerator. As far as synthetic rubber is concerned, the anti-aging agent used has a certain impact on the amount of dissolved matter. Among commonly used rubber additives, toxic or suspected toxic ones are β— Naphthylamine, benzidine, m-methylenediamine, Chloroaniline, phenylnaphthylamine, mercaptobenzothiazole, acrylonitrile and chloroprene

because rubber itself is easy to absorb water, it has more dissolved matter than plastic. The current Japanese food hygiene law has no restrictions on rubber products, except for certain restrictions on pacifiers for lactation. According to the announcement of the Ministry of health and welfare of Japan, the regulations restricting plastic products can be used, so there are some unreasonable places

safety status of food packaging materials in China

in order to standardize food packaging in China and ensure the safety of packaged food, the General Administration of quality supervision, inspection and Quarantine of the people's Republic of China recently conducted supervision and random inspection on the quality and safety of food packaging bags (films). This time, a total of 106 products from 106 enterprises in eastern provinces and cities such as Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Fujian, Shanghai and Zhejiang were sampled, 91 of which were qualified, and the qualified rate of product sampling was 85.8%. Among them, 67 kinds of film products of single-layer food packaging bags, 54 kinds are qualified, and the sampling qualification rate is 80.6%; There are 39 kinds of composite food packaging film products, and 37 kinds of special spraying machines fuse and spray the materials on the polished base, with a sampling qualification rate of 94.9%

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